Triglochin maritima

2015-04-26triglochin1s

Triglochin maritima in British Columbia

2015-04-26triglochinsTriglochin maritima grows in the marsh of Gooch Creek

Each year I harvest last years stems of Phragmites in my estuary/marsh for mason bee tubes. It is important that this is done in the early spring only before new shoots start to emerge.  I have a theory that this native Phragmites exists in this particular marsh only because the marsh was fenced in the early years to prevent grazing by cattle and sheep. It has been eliminated from most of the other marshes in BC by grazing (personal communication with Robert Prescott-Allen). The reason this marsh was fenced probably was that the plant Triglochin maritima  (Sea arrow grass) grows in the marsh and it is toxic to grazers. ( see below)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Alismatales
Family: Juncaginaceae
Genus: Triglochin
Species: T. maritima
Binomial name
Triglochin maritima L.


The following is a quote from the Canadian Biodiversity Information facility:

General poisoning notes:

Seaside arrow-grass (Triglochin maritima) is a native plant found sporadically across Canada in saline, brackish, or fresh marshes and shores. This plant contains cyanogenic glycosides, which can release HCN during mastication by animals. Poisoning occurs primarily with ruminants, including cattle and sheep. The concentration of toxic chemicals increases during times of moisture depletion (Majak et al. 1980, Cooper and Johnson 1984, Poulton 1989).

References:

  • Beath, O. A., Draize, J. H., Eppson, H. F. 1933. Arrow grass – chemical and physiological considerations. Univ. Wyo. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull., 193. 36 pp.
  • Cooper, M. R., Johnson, A. W. 1984. Poisonous plants in Britain and their effects on animals and man. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, England. 305 pp.

Nomenclature:

Scientific Name:
Triglochin maritima
Vernacular name(s):
seaside arrow-grass
Scientific family name:
Juncaginaceae
Vernacular family name:
arrow-grass

Go to ITIS*ca for more taxonomic information on: Triglochin maritima

Toxic plant chemicals:

  • taxiphillin
  • triglochinin

References:

  • Majak, W., McDiarmid, R. E., Hall, J. W., Van Ryswyk, A. L. 1980. Seasonal variation in the cyanide potential of arrowgrass (Triglochin maritima). Can. J. Plant Sci., 60: 1235-1241.
  • Poulton, J. E. 1983. Cyanogenic compounds in plants and their toxic effects. Pages 117-157 in Keeler, R. F., Tu, A. T., eds. Handbook of natural toxins. Vol. 1. Plant and Fungal toxins. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., USA. 934 pp.

Animals/Human Poisoning:

Cattle

General symptoms of poisoning:

Notes on poisoning:

Cyanide poisoning from seaside arrow-grass is similar to symptoms discussed under sheep.

References:

  • Cooper, M. R., Johnson, A. W. 1984. Poisonous plants in Britain and their effects on animals and man. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, England. 305 pp.

Sheep

General symptoms of poisoning:

Notes on poisoning:

Cyanide poisoning of sheep by seaside arrow-grass includes the following symptoms: nervousness, trembling, erratic breathing, convulsions, recumbency, and death. Postmortem findings reveal bright red blood and the smell of bitter almonds in the stomach. Treatment, if started early enough, can be successful. Intravenous injections of an aqueous solution of sodium thiosulfate have proved to be effective (Cooper and Johnson 1984).

References:

  • Cooper, M. R., Johnson, A. W. 1984. Poisonous plants in Britain and their effects on animals and man. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, England. 305 pp.

2014 Metchosin Bioblitz: Gooch Creek species

A large group of interested Metchosinites took a tour through the Gooch Creek estuary and shorefront as part of the Bioblitz which this year focused on Fresh water and estuarine habitats.

Below is the list of some of the findings:

iron bacteria Bacteria Bacteria gooch creek upland ID: Garry Fletcher
Tuber gibosum oregon white truffle fungus Fungus gooch creek upland ID: Ben Hircock
Gerris remigis water strider invertebrate insect gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Tipula spp. crane fly invertebrate insect gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
? unidentified water
mite species
Invertebrate arthropod Gooch Creek Pond ID: Rick Nordin
Planaria sp flatworm Invertebrate Platyhelminthes Gooch Creek Pond ID: Rick Nordin
Physella gyrina snail Invertebrate mollusca Gooch Creek Pond ID: Rick Nordin
Planaria sp flatworm Invertebrate Platyhelminthes Gooch Creek Pond ID: Rick Nordin
Physella gyrina snail Invertebrate mollusca Gooch Creek Pond ID: Rick Nordin
Philaneus spumarius spittle bug Invertebrate Insect gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Tipula spp. crane fly invertebrate insect gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Oscillatoria (2 species) diatom Phytoplankton: diatom Gooch Creek Pond ID: Rick Nordin
Synedra sp diatom Phytoplankton: diatom Gooch Creek Pond ID: Rick Nordin
Cyclotella sp diatom Phytoplankton: diatom Gooch Creek Pond ID: Rick Nordin
Sphaerozosma sp diatom Phytoplankton: diatom Gooch Creek Pond ID: Rick Nordin
Hydrosera diatom -spectacular and uncommon Phytoplankton: diatom Gooch Creek Pond ID: Rick Nordin
Kephyrion diatom Phytoplankton: diatom Gooch Creek Pond ID: Rick Nordin
Achillea millefolium yarrow Vascular plant Forb adjacent toTaylor beach ID: Garry Fletcher
Ambrosia chamissonis Silver burr ragweed Vascular plant Forb adjacent to Taylor beach ID: Garry Fletcher
Cakille edentula American Sea Rocket Vascular plant forb adjacent to Taylor beach ID: Garry Fletcher
Chenopodium album red goosefoot Vascular plant Forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
? Colomia heterophylla vari-leaved collomia Vascular plant Forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Epipactis helleborine. orchid Vascular plant forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Equisetum arvense field horsetail Vascular plant forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Galium aparine cleavers Vascular plant Forb adjacent to Taylor beach ID: Garry Fletcher
Lathyrus littoralis Beach Pea Vascular plant Forb adjacent toTaylor beach ID: Garry Fletcher
Lemna minor Common duckweed Vascular plant forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Lysichiton americanum skunk cabbage Vascular plant forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Maianthemum dilatatum false lily of the valley Vascular plant Forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Oenanthe sarmentosa Pacific water parsley Vascular plant Forb gooch creek upland ID: Garry Fletcher
Potentilla anserina silverweed Vascular plant Forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Ranunculus occidentalis Western buttercup Vascular plant Forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
? Ranunculus repens Creepinng buttercup Vascular plant Forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Rumex cripsus curled dock Vascular plant Forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Rumex obtusifolius broad leafed dock Vascular plant Forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Sanicle crassicaulis Pacific sanicle Vascular plant Forb gooch creek upland ID: Garry Fletcher
Sonchus oleraceus Sow thistle Vascular plant Forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Stachys cooleyae Cooley’s hedge nettle Vascular plant Forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Veronica beccabunga American brooklime Vascular plant Forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Holcus lanatus Velvet grass Vascular plant grass gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Festuca arundenacea tall fescue Vascular plant grass gooch creek estuary ID: A.Ceska
Distichlis spicata seasaide saltgrass Vascular plant grass gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Triglochin maritima Sea arrowgrass Vascular plant grass gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Lemus mollis tall beachgrass Vascular plant grass adjacent toTaylor beach ID: Garry Fletcher
Typha latifolia cattail Vascular plant grass gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Phragmites australis (Cav.)
Trin. ex Steud. subsp. americanus
marsh reed grass Vascular plant grass gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher, by DNA Sampling-FLNRO
Scirpus microcarpus small-flowered bulrush Vascular plant Rush gooch creek estuary ID: A.Ceska
Scirpus validus hard-stemmed bulrush Vascular plant Rush gooch creek estuary ID: A.Ceska
Juncus balticus Artic rush Vascular plant Rush gooch creek estuary ID: A.Ceska
Juncus effusus common rush Vascular plant Rush gooch creek estuary ID: A.Ceska
Carex obnupta slough sedge Vascular plant sedge gooch creek estuary ID: A.Ceska
Carex sitchensis Sitka sedge Vascular plant sedge gooch creek estuary ID: A.Ceska
Cystis scoparius Scotch broom Vascular plant shrub gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Rosa nutkana Nootka rose Vascular plant shrub gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Mahonia aquifolium oregon grape Vascular plant shrub gooch creek upland ID: Garry Fletcher
Physocarpus capilatus Pacific ninebark Vascular plant shrub gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Oemleria cerasiformis Indian plum Vascular plant Shrub gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Rubus spectabilis salmon berry Vascular plant Shrub gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Symphoricarpos albus snowberry Vascular plant Shrub gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Ulex europaeus gorse Vascular plant Shrub adjacent to Taylor beach ID: Garry Fletcher
Viburnum edule highbush cranberry Vascular plant Shrub gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Cornus sericea red osier dogwood Vascular plant Shrub gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Populus balsamifera Black Poplar Vascular plant tree gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Acer macrophyllum big leaf maple Vascular plant Tree gooch creek upland ID: Garry Fletcher
Alnus rubra red alder Vascular plant Tree gooch creek upland ID: Garry Fletcher
Arbutus menziesii arbutus Vascular plant Tree gooch creek upland ID: Garry Fletcher
Malus fusca Pacific crabapple Vascular plant Tree gooch creek upland ID: Garry Fletcher
Prunus emarginata Bitter cherry Vascular plant Tree gooch creek upland ID: Garry Fletcher
Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas fir Vascular plant Tree gooch creek upland ID: Garry Fletcher
Salix sitchensis Sitka willow Vascular plant Tree gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Abies grandis grand fir Vascular plant tree adjacent toTaylor beach ID: Garry Fletcher
Taxus brevifolia Pacific western yew Vascular plant Tree gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Anas platyrhynchos mallard Vertebrate Bird gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Agelaius phoeniceus red-winged blackbird Vertebrate Bird gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Geothlypis trichas yellowthroat Vertebrate Bird gooch creek estuary ID: Rick Shortinghouse
Falco columbarius merlin Vertebrate Bird gooch creek upland ID: Rick Shortinghouse
Callipepla californica California quail Vertebrate Bird gooch creek upland ID: Garry Fletcher
Gasterosteus aculeatus, 3-spined Stickleback Vertebrate Fish gooch creek estuary ID: Moralea Milne
Bioblitz Species in the Gooch Creek Area, May 2014,
submitted by Garry Fletcheramerican_brooklime_flowermany grass species and mosses were groups that were not identified< 

Eel grass Distribution along Parry Bay

Eel grass along our coastline provides a valuable habitat for juvenile fish, crabs and other invertebrates. This week on October 28 and 29th, there was a wind from the North West which resulted in some debris deposition on the beach. The pictures show the eel grass deposits and the map shows the location where it came from  in the shallow water offshore. Eel grass turned up in the strand line almost the full length of the Taylor beach sector:

eelgrassnov1b

View from the south end of Taylor Beach showing Eel grass in the strand line

eelgrassnov1

View from the North end of Taylor Beach showing Eel grass in the strand line

eelgrassbed

Metchosin Bioblitz 2013: North end of Sector 7, Taylor Beach

Metchosin  BioBlitz Observations by Garry Fletcher and Sandra______on April 27, 2013 on the floodplane and estuary of Gooch Creek, on the 4645 William Head Road Property.

 

 

Continue reading