Triglochin maritima

2015-04-26triglochin1s

Triglochin maritima in British Columbia

2015-04-26triglochinsTriglochin maritima grows in the marsh of Gooch Creek

Each year I harvest last years stems of Phragmites in my estuary/marsh for mason bee tubes. It is important that this is done in the early spring only before new shoots start to emerge.  I have a theory that this native Phragmites exists in this particular marsh only because the marsh was fenced in the early years to prevent grazing by cattle and sheep. It has been eliminated from most of the other marshes in BC by grazing (personal communication with Robert Prescott-Allen). The reason this marsh was fenced probably was that the plant Triglochin maritima  (Sea arrow grass) grows in the marsh and it is toxic to grazers. ( see below)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Alismatales
Family: Juncaginaceae
Genus: Triglochin
Species: T. maritima
Binomial name
Triglochin maritima L.


The following is a quote from the Canadian Biodiversity Information facility:

General poisoning notes:

Seaside arrow-grass (Triglochin maritima) is a native plant found sporadically across Canada in saline, brackish, or fresh marshes and shores. This plant contains cyanogenic glycosides, which can release HCN during mastication by animals. Poisoning occurs primarily with ruminants, including cattle and sheep. The concentration of toxic chemicals increases during times of moisture depletion (Majak et al. 1980, Cooper and Johnson 1984, Poulton 1989).

References:

  • Beath, O. A., Draize, J. H., Eppson, H. F. 1933. Arrow grass – chemical and physiological considerations. Univ. Wyo. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull., 193. 36 pp.
  • Cooper, M. R., Johnson, A. W. 1984. Poisonous plants in Britain and their effects on animals and man. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, England. 305 pp.

Nomenclature:

Scientific Name:
Triglochin maritima
Vernacular name(s):
seaside arrow-grass
Scientific family name:
Juncaginaceae
Vernacular family name:
arrow-grass

Go to ITIS*ca for more taxonomic information on: Triglochin maritima

Toxic plant chemicals:

  • taxiphillin
  • triglochinin

References:

  • Majak, W., McDiarmid, R. E., Hall, J. W., Van Ryswyk, A. L. 1980. Seasonal variation in the cyanide potential of arrowgrass (Triglochin maritima). Can. J. Plant Sci., 60: 1235-1241.
  • Poulton, J. E. 1983. Cyanogenic compounds in plants and their toxic effects. Pages 117-157 in Keeler, R. F., Tu, A. T., eds. Handbook of natural toxins. Vol. 1. Plant and Fungal toxins. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., USA. 934 pp.

Animals/Human Poisoning:

Cattle

General symptoms of poisoning:

Notes on poisoning:

Cyanide poisoning from seaside arrow-grass is similar to symptoms discussed under sheep.

References:

  • Cooper, M. R., Johnson, A. W. 1984. Poisonous plants in Britain and their effects on animals and man. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, England. 305 pp.

Sheep

General symptoms of poisoning:

Notes on poisoning:

Cyanide poisoning of sheep by seaside arrow-grass includes the following symptoms: nervousness, trembling, erratic breathing, convulsions, recumbency, and death. Postmortem findings reveal bright red blood and the smell of bitter almonds in the stomach. Treatment, if started early enough, can be successful. Intravenous injections of an aqueous solution of sodium thiosulfate have proved to be effective (Cooper and Johnson 1984).

References:

  • Cooper, M. R., Johnson, A. W. 1984. Poisonous plants in Britain and their effects on animals and man. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, England. 305 pp.

Riparian well defined

In determining the importance of the watershed that connects with our shoreline, the word Riparian often surfaces. In the National Energy Board KM/TMX hearings, the pdf enclosed was one of the reports presented. It gives a well-researched description of the definition of Riparian along with the implications for development which impinges upon such areas.

This was originally filed at : https://docs.neb-one.gc.ca/ll-eng/llisapi.dll/fetch/2000/90464/90552/548311/956726/2392873/2449925/2450952/2798050/C301-15-1_-_IR_From_Salmon_River_Enhancement_Society_to_Pipeup_-_A4Q7W6_SRES_RESPONSE_compressed_-_A4R4F2.pdf?nodeid=2797843&vernum=-2

QUOTE” “Role of Riparian Habitat in Streams Why is the Riparian Area Important? Riparian areas and the vegetation and structure associated with this component of aquatic environments in streams and lakes comprise critical habitats for many species, including commercial, recreational and aboriginal (CRA) fishery fishes. A riparian zone, or riparian area, is the water/land interface between the terrestrial upland area and a river or stream (Figure 1). Plant communities along the edge of streams or lakes are usually referred to as the riparian vegetation (Figure 2). The plant community within a riparian area often is dominated by hydrophilic species, but not always (Figure 2). In British Columbia watercourses that support CRA fisheries rely profoundly on intact and functional riparian areas (viz., Forest and Range Practices Act https://www.for.gov.bc.ca/code/ Table 1; Riparian Areas Regulation http://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/environment/plants-animalsecosystems/fish/riparian-areas-regulation Table 2). To reiterate, the scientific literature is very clear that riparian areas comprise critical habitats for both fishes and other species (Wenger 1999, Broadmeadow and Nisbet 2004). The role of riparian habitats is elegantly described by excerpts in the following quotes: Riparian buffers are important for good water quality [in streams]. Riparian zones help to prevent [deleterious] sediment[s], nitrogen, phosphorus, pesticides and other pollutants from C301 – Salmon River Enhancement Society 3 reaching a stream. Riparian buffers are most effective at improving water quality when they include a native grass or herbaceous filter strip along with deep rooted trees and shrubs along the stream. Riparian vegetation is a major source of energy and nutrients for stream communities. They are especially important in small, headwater streams where up to 99% of the energy input may be from woody debris and leaf litter. [Invertebrates associated with this and instream vegetation contribute as fish food.] Overhanging riparian vegetation keeps streams cool, [and] this is especially important for…mountain trout [i.e., salmonid] populations. Riparian buffers provide valuable habitat for wildlife. In addition to providing food and cover they are an important corridor or travel [path]way[s] for a variety of wildlife. Forested streamsides benefit game species [e.g., deer and bear]…and nongame species like migratory songbirds. Riparian vegetation slows floodwaters, thereby helping to maintain stable streambanks and protect downstream property. By slowing down floodwaters and rainwater runoff, the riparian vegetation allows water to soak into the ground and recharge groundwater. Slowing floodwaters allows the riparian zone to function as a site of sediment deposition, trapping sediments that build stream banks and would otherwise degrade our streams and rivers. [http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/wqg/sri/riparian5.pdf Accessed 6 July 2015.] The critical nature of riparian areas to a properly functioning stream cannot be overstated. As Tschaplinski and Pike (2009), in their analysis of the function of riparian areas to British Columbia streams, point out “No other landscape features within forests provide linkages that are as extensive and complex as those provided by riparian ecotones.” Tschaplinski and Pike (2009) go further to indicate that riparian areas contain and support many of the highest-value resources in natural forests and quote Hartman and Scrivener (1990) as evidence. In another citation, Gregory et al. (1991) indicate that the plant and animal communities in riparian areas frequently have the highest species richness found in forests. The issues relating to riparian areas are particularly relevant to the Trans Mountain Expansion Project (TMEP) as many of the streams crossed by the pipeline construction are typical of the watercourses that Tschaplinski and Pike (2009) and others refer to in respect to the importance of the role of riparian vegetation and the zone as fish habitat. And riparian areas are key habitats that TMEP will destroy as a function of crossing the streams where trenching will take place.See the full PDF:Ripariandefinition-_IR_From_Salmon_River_Enhancement_Society_to_Pipeup_-_A4Q7W6_SRES_RESPONSE_compressed_-_A4R4F2

riparianareas

The Shoreline of Metchosin: What do we have to lose with tanker traffic

Along the shoreline of Metchosin and underwater we have ecosystems which are at risk of being heavily impacted in the event of an impending oil spill catastrophe given all the proposed projects which will increase ship traffic to unacceptable levels in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The presentation by Garry Fletcher linked here was done on the evening of October 23rd, 2014 at the Metchosin Community Hall organized by Karyn Woodland and the local Dogwood Initiative Group. ( NOTE: comments are included under the images and all images are copyright of the photographers who took them, John Harper(GeoBC); the ecoguardians at Race Rocks: Ryan Murphy, Raisa Mirza, Alex Fletcher, Anne Stewart, Adam Harding, Mike Robinson and Courtenay Edwards, and myself. The graphics from the first part on Oil Spill Risk are from  posts of Nov.4 on Oil Spill Risks
Link to a description of the three presentations to the Town hall meeting by Kai Nagata of the Dogwood Initiative, Andrew Weaver, Green Party MLA for Oak Bay and Intervenor in the Kinder Morgan hearings, and Garry Fletcher, Intervenor for the Board of Friends of Ecological Reserves in the Kinder-Morgan / Trans Mountain Expansion project hearings. gfpresent

2014 Metchosin Bioblitz: Gooch Creek species

A large group of interested Metchosinites took a tour through the Gooch Creek estuary and shorefront as part of the Bioblitz which this year focused on Fresh water and estuarine habitats.

Below is the list of some of the findings:

iron bacteria Bacteria Bacteria gooch creek upland ID: Garry Fletcher
Tuber gibosum oregon white truffle fungus Fungus gooch creek upland ID: Ben Hircock
Gerris remigis water strider invertebrate insect gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Tipula spp. crane fly invertebrate insect gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
? unidentified water
mite species
Invertebrate arthropod Gooch Creek Pond ID: Rick Nordin
Planaria sp flatworm Invertebrate Platyhelminthes Gooch Creek Pond ID: Rick Nordin
Physella gyrina snail Invertebrate mollusca Gooch Creek Pond ID: Rick Nordin
Planaria sp flatworm Invertebrate Platyhelminthes Gooch Creek Pond ID: Rick Nordin
Physella gyrina snail Invertebrate mollusca Gooch Creek Pond ID: Rick Nordin
Philaneus spumarius spittle bug Invertebrate Insect gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Tipula spp. crane fly invertebrate insect gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Oscillatoria (2 species) diatom Phytoplankton: diatom Gooch Creek Pond ID: Rick Nordin
Synedra sp diatom Phytoplankton: diatom Gooch Creek Pond ID: Rick Nordin
Cyclotella sp diatom Phytoplankton: diatom Gooch Creek Pond ID: Rick Nordin
Sphaerozosma sp diatom Phytoplankton: diatom Gooch Creek Pond ID: Rick Nordin
Hydrosera diatom -spectacular and uncommon Phytoplankton: diatom Gooch Creek Pond ID: Rick Nordin
Kephyrion diatom Phytoplankton: diatom Gooch Creek Pond ID: Rick Nordin
Achillea millefolium yarrow Vascular plant Forb adjacent toTaylor beach ID: Garry Fletcher
Ambrosia chamissonis Silver burr ragweed Vascular plant Forb adjacent to Taylor beach ID: Garry Fletcher
Cakille edentula American Sea Rocket Vascular plant forb adjacent to Taylor beach ID: Garry Fletcher
Chenopodium album red goosefoot Vascular plant Forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
? Colomia heterophylla vari-leaved collomia Vascular plant Forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Epipactis helleborine. orchid Vascular plant forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Equisetum arvense field horsetail Vascular plant forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Galium aparine cleavers Vascular plant Forb adjacent to Taylor beach ID: Garry Fletcher
Lathyrus littoralis Beach Pea Vascular plant Forb adjacent toTaylor beach ID: Garry Fletcher
Lemna minor Common duckweed Vascular plant forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Lysichiton americanum skunk cabbage Vascular plant forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Maianthemum dilatatum false lily of the valley Vascular plant Forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Oenanthe sarmentosa Pacific water parsley Vascular plant Forb gooch creek upland ID: Garry Fletcher
Potentilla anserina silverweed Vascular plant Forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Ranunculus occidentalis Western buttercup Vascular plant Forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
? Ranunculus repens Creepinng buttercup Vascular plant Forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Rumex cripsus curled dock Vascular plant Forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Rumex obtusifolius broad leafed dock Vascular plant Forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Sanicle crassicaulis Pacific sanicle Vascular plant Forb gooch creek upland ID: Garry Fletcher
Sonchus oleraceus Sow thistle Vascular plant Forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Stachys cooleyae Cooley’s hedge nettle Vascular plant Forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Veronica beccabunga American brooklime Vascular plant Forb gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Holcus lanatus Velvet grass Vascular plant grass gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Festuca arundenacea tall fescue Vascular plant grass gooch creek estuary ID: A.Ceska
Distichlis spicata seasaide saltgrass Vascular plant grass gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Triglochin maritima Sea arrowgrass Vascular plant grass gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Lemus mollis tall beachgrass Vascular plant grass adjacent toTaylor beach ID: Garry Fletcher
Typha latifolia cattail Vascular plant grass gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Phragmites australis (Cav.)
Trin. ex Steud. subsp. americanus
marsh reed grass Vascular plant grass gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher, by DNA Sampling-FLNRO
Scirpus microcarpus small-flowered bulrush Vascular plant Rush gooch creek estuary ID: A.Ceska
Scirpus validus hard-stemmed bulrush Vascular plant Rush gooch creek estuary ID: A.Ceska
Juncus balticus Artic rush Vascular plant Rush gooch creek estuary ID: A.Ceska
Juncus effusus common rush Vascular plant Rush gooch creek estuary ID: A.Ceska
Carex obnupta slough sedge Vascular plant sedge gooch creek estuary ID: A.Ceska
Carex sitchensis Sitka sedge Vascular plant sedge gooch creek estuary ID: A.Ceska
Cystis scoparius Scotch broom Vascular plant shrub gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Rosa nutkana Nootka rose Vascular plant shrub gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Mahonia aquifolium oregon grape Vascular plant shrub gooch creek upland ID: Garry Fletcher
Physocarpus capilatus Pacific ninebark Vascular plant shrub gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Oemleria cerasiformis Indian plum Vascular plant Shrub gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Rubus spectabilis salmon berry Vascular plant Shrub gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Symphoricarpos albus snowberry Vascular plant Shrub gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Ulex europaeus gorse Vascular plant Shrub adjacent to Taylor beach ID: Garry Fletcher
Viburnum edule highbush cranberry Vascular plant Shrub gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Cornus sericea red osier dogwood Vascular plant Shrub gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Populus balsamifera Black Poplar Vascular plant tree gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Acer macrophyllum big leaf maple Vascular plant Tree gooch creek upland ID: Garry Fletcher
Alnus rubra red alder Vascular plant Tree gooch creek upland ID: Garry Fletcher
Arbutus menziesii arbutus Vascular plant Tree gooch creek upland ID: Garry Fletcher
Malus fusca Pacific crabapple Vascular plant Tree gooch creek upland ID: Garry Fletcher
Prunus emarginata Bitter cherry Vascular plant Tree gooch creek upland ID: Garry Fletcher
Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas fir Vascular plant Tree gooch creek upland ID: Garry Fletcher
Salix sitchensis Sitka willow Vascular plant Tree gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Abies grandis grand fir Vascular plant tree adjacent toTaylor beach ID: Garry Fletcher
Taxus brevifolia Pacific western yew Vascular plant Tree gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Anas platyrhynchos mallard Vertebrate Bird gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Agelaius phoeniceus red-winged blackbird Vertebrate Bird gooch creek estuary ID: Garry Fletcher
Geothlypis trichas yellowthroat Vertebrate Bird gooch creek estuary ID: Rick Shortinghouse
Falco columbarius merlin Vertebrate Bird gooch creek upland ID: Rick Shortinghouse
Callipepla californica California quail Vertebrate Bird gooch creek upland ID: Garry Fletcher
Gasterosteus aculeatus, 3-spined Stickleback Vertebrate Fish gooch creek estuary ID: Moralea Milne
Bioblitz Species in the Gooch Creek Area, May 2014,
submitted by Garry Fletcheramerican_brooklime_flowermany grass species and mosses were groups that were not identified< 

American Brooklime Veronica beccabunga in Gooch Creek Estuary

In the Metchosin Bioblitz I came across a plant which I had not seen before called American Brooklime, Veronica beccabunga.

This plant grows as an edible herbaceous perennial in a 1 Meter square patch in amongst the grasses in the estuary lagoon .  The area is only flooded  with sea water in the winter at an extreme high tide with a strong east wind blowing. Close up, it has very striking flowers. The plant was in bloom on May 24, 2014.

american_brooklime_flower

American brooklime

2014-06-01-American-brooklimeallm

American Brooklime- [plant form]

Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Veronica
Species: V. americana

 

Metchosin Bioblitz 2013: North end of Sector 7, Taylor Beach

Metchosin  BioBlitz Observations by Garry Fletcher and Sandra______on April 27, 2013 on the floodplane and estuary of Gooch Creek, on the 4645 William Head Road Property.

 

 

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Gooch Creek and Associated Ecosystems: Issues and Solutions

Ed Note: all mentioning of the invasive species Phragmites australis should now be updated to indicate this species has been identified by DNA sampling as the Native Species Phragmites australis, subspecies americanus.

By Moralea Milne, Student # 9913797,  ER 390, April 12, 2004

Abstract:  Gooch Creek and associated ecosystems provides habitat for two provincially blue-listed species: coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) and red-legged frog (Rana aurora) as well as three spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Gooch Creek and associated ecosystems were mapped using Global Positioning Systems technology. Studies using Streamkeepers, Wetlandkeepers, Urban Salmon Habitat Program and Proper Functioning Condition to assess Gooch Creek have found the cumulative effects of land conversion, land use, livestock usage, invasive species encroachment and roads practices have negatively effected the aquatic health this system. Water quality sampling was conducted every second week at six locations for dissolved oxygen, water temperature, total dissolved solids, pH and turbidity. Chemical analysis of soil and water was also Continue reading

Marine and Estuarine Riparian Habitats and their role in Ecosystems in the Pacific Region

Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document 2001/109.

Colin Levings and Glen Jamieson, Fisheries and Oceans Canada

abstract
A.  introduction

in this paper we provide an assessment of the fish habitat significance of a particularly ecotone  of the Marine and estuary in Shoreline in British Columbia-locations were aquatic habitat at higher tides merges into terrestrial habitat. An eco-tone is defined as a son of transition between adjacent ecological systems, having a set of characteristics  uniquely defined by time and space scales, And by the strength of the interactions between adjacent ecological systems. Ecotones at the edges of lakes, streams, and rivers are well described by ecologists and are called riparian zones the word riparian is derived from the Latin word for River and is strongly embedded in ecological, legal, and environmental planning literature the following is a working definition of riparian habitat, adopted by DFO and MOV and parks in a recent document (2000) with fish habitat protection and area adjacent to a stream that may be subject to temporary, frequent, or seasonal inundation and supports plant species that are typical of an area inundated or saturated soil conditions, and that are distinct from plant species on freely drained adjacent upland sites because of the presence of water

See this PDF for the full article: MarineRiparianHabitats(LevingsJamieson2001)